Bitcoin Mining & Crypto Blog  .  Apr 21 2023

​​What is a Crypto Mining Pool and How Does it Work?

Miners can pool their resources and work together to speed up the mining process and increase their income through the mining pool. Learn more about the mechanisms at work in this procedure.


What is a Mining Pool?

The mining pool is a collection of miners who aggregate their computer resources to maximize the possibility that they will successfully mine blocks and earn rewards in a cryptocurrency network. The more computing power a miner contributes to the pool, the higher their potential rewards.

Mining pools are usually operated by a pool manager, who manages the pool's operations and distributes the rewards. The manager sets the pool's fee structure, which can be a percentage of the rewards or a flat fee per block. The manager also provides miners with the necessary software and configuration settings to connect to the pool.

The exact number of cryptocurrency mining pools worldwide is challenging to determine due to frequent changes and the presence of many small pools that may not publicize their existence. However, various data analytics firms report dozens of major mining pools that control most of the world's computing power. Some of the most prominent ones include Foundry, Antpool,, F2Pool, ViaBTC, Braiins Pool, Poolin, Luxor, and Binance Pool.

How Does Mining Pool Works

The mining pool operator by assigning mining tasks to individual miners, who contribute their own hashrate to the pool to solve these tasks. When a miner successfully generates a new block, the pool distributes a percentage of the block rewards to all miners involved in the mining process, proportional to their computing power contribution.

The proportion of the reward allocated to each miner is determined by their relative hashrate contribution. For instance, if a miner contributes 30% of the total computing power, they will receive 30% of the mining reward.

Types of Cryptos Mining Pools

● Pay-per-Share

Pay-per-share (PPS) is a widely used reward system in major mining pools. This method of distributing block rewards among pool participants is known for its fairness and stability. When a miner submits a solution to the pool, it is referred to as a "share." The pool verifies each share and adds it to the total hash rate of the pool. The pool operator then pays a fixed amount to each miner for every share they submit, whether or not the pool actually discovers a block. The payout for each share is typically calculated based on the current difficulty level of the mining network, and it may be adjusted in the future.

● Proportional

Another popular reward system used in mining pools is called "proportional" or "prop". In a proportional system, the pool operator distributes the reward for a block found by the pool among its participating miners based on the number of shares each miner contributed to finding the block. This means that miners with a higher hash rate or more shares submitted have a higher chance of earning a larger payout. However, if the pool does not find a block, miners will not receive any payout.

● Pooled mining

Another approach for mining cryptos is known as "pooled mining," in which a number of miners pool their hashrate to mine simultaneously. For small-scale miners who lack the significant computer capacity to mine successfully alone, this strategy is advantageous.

The most significant advantage of pooled mining is that it can provide miners with a more consistent and predictable income. By pooling their resources, miners can collectively solve more blocks and earn rewards more frequently. Even if an individual miner's contribution is modest, they can still receive a proportional share of the pool's rewards based on their computing power. Furthermore, pooled mining reduces the variance in reward distribution, as miners can share the risk and reward of finding blocks.

The drawback of pooled mining is the concentration of mining power in a few large pools, leading to centralization. This concentration of mining power increases the risk of 51% attacks, where a single pool or group of miners controls enough computing power to manipulate transactions on the blockchain. Additionally, pool operators may charge a fee for their services, reducing the overall profitability for miners.

● Pay-per-last-N-shares

A compensation system called Pay-per-Last-N-Shares (PPLNS) operates by counting the number of historical shares rather than only the most recent ones. As a result, miners are motivated to stay in the pool longer.

One potential disadvantage of PPLNS is that it can result in lower payouts for miners during periods of high network difficulty or low block rewards. Another potential disadvantage of PPLNS is that it can incentivize pool hopping, where miners move between pools to maximize their payouts.

● Peer-to-Peer Mining Pool

P2P mining pool, miners collaborate directly with each other without the need for a central server. P2P mining pools allow miners to share their computing power and mine cryptocurrencies in a decentralized manner, without relying on a third-party intermediary.

P2P mining pools offer several benefits, including increased transparency, greater control for miners, and reduced risks of downtime and security breaches. Some popular P2P mining pools use alternative protocols like the Stratum protocol to enable direct connections between miners. Examples of P2P mining pools include P2Pool, BitMinter, and CKPool.

● Geometric method

The geometric method in Bitcoin mining is a way of estimating the mining difficulty by using a geometric series. It is based on the assumption that the difficulty of mining will increase over time as more miners join the network and compete to solve blocks.

The geometric method involves calculating the average time it takes to mine a block using the current difficulty level, and then adjusting the difficulty based on how long it actually took to mine the previous 2016 blocks. If the time it took to mine the previous 2016 blocks was shorter than the average, the difficulty will increase, and if it took longer, the difficulty will decrease.

This method helps ensure that the rate at which new blocks are added to the blockchain remains relatively constant, which is a key feature of the Bitcoin protocol.

● Double Geometric method

The Double Geometric Method (DGM) in Bitcoin mining is similar to the traditional proportional method but with an added layer of complexity.

In the DGM model, miners receive rewards based on two different geometric formulas. The first formula is based on the total number of shares submitted by each miner, which represents their contribution to the mining pool's hash rate. The second formula is based on the number of shares that were valid and contributed to solving a block.

The DGM model allows miners to receive a portion of the reward for each block that is solved, even if they did not directly contribute to solving it. This is because the DGM model takes into account the miners' overall contribution to the pool, rather than just their contribution to a specific block.

Pros of Mining Pool

1. More potential for rewards

As the aggregate computing power of the pool is greater than the individual computing power of each miner, miners can boost their odds of solving blocks and receiving rewards by pooling their computational power.

2. More consistent income

In contrast to solo mining, which can be more unpredictable, mining pools often deliver prizes to its members on a regular basis, offering a more reliable income source.

3. Reduce prices

By combining their resources, miners can lower their mining costs by splitting the cost of hardware, electricity, and other charges.

4. Using cutting-edge mining equipment

Several mining pools include sophisticated equipment and software that individual miners would not have access to, including specialized hardware, quicker network connections, and unique mining software.

Cons of Mining Pool

1. Lower rewards for each miner individually

Despite the fact that mining pools improve the likelihood of obtaining rewards, they also divide prizes among all participants according to their contributions, so the benefits received by an individual miner are often lesser than those obtained by solo mining.

2. Dependence on the mining pool

Members of a mining pool depend on the pool operator to administer the pool efficiently and distribute rewards fairly. Ineffective or dishonest pool management might result in lost awards and other issues.

3. Centralization of mining power

The network's decentralization may be impacted as more miners join a pool since the pool may become to dominate the network and concentrate mining power in the hands of a few major companies.

4. Increased costs

For their services, mining pools often charge a fee, which might lower the total profitability of mining for pool members. Depending on the mining pool and the coin being mined, these fees can vary a lot.

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